Wine and Food Pairing 101

Jun 27, 2024by Andrew Lowry

Wine and Food Pairing 101: A Beginner's Guide to Enhancing Your Dining Experience

Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. The Basics of Wine and Food Pairing
  3. Three Ways to Pair
    1. Complementary Pairings: Like with Like
    2. Contrasting Pairings: Opposites Attract
    3. Regional Pairings: What Grows Together, Goes Together
  4. Classic Wine and Food Pairings
  5. Pairing Wine with Different Courses
  6. Tips for Successful Pairing
  7. Common Pairing Mistakes to Avoid
  8. Conclusion

1. Introduction to Wine Pairing

Wine has been a part of human culture for thousands of years, and throughout history, it has enjoyed a rightful place on the table alongside food. The right wine can enhance a meal, turning a simple dinner into a memorable experience. However, the world of wine and food pairing can seem daunting. With countless wine varieties and an endless array of dishes, how do you know what goes well together?

This guide aims to demystify the art of wine and food pairing. We'll explore the basic principles, discuss different pairing strategies, and provide examples to help you make informed choices. Remember, while there are guidelines, personal taste is paramount. Use this information as a starting point, but don't be afraid to experiment and discover your own perfect pairings. And have fun!

2. The Basics of Wine and Food Pairing

At its core, wine and food pairing is about creating a balance between the flavors and textures of both the wine and the food. A successful pairing should enhance both elements, creating a harmonious blend that's greater than the sum of its parts.

When considering a pairing, think about these key elements:

  • Intensity: Match the weight and richness of the food with the body of the wine.
  • Acidity: Acidic wines can cut through rich, fatty foods and refresh the palate.
  • Tannins: These astringent, protein-binding compounds in red wines can help balance high-protein foods.
  • Sweetness: Sweet wines can balance spicy or salty foods, or can harmonize with a dessert.
  • Flavor profiles: Consider the dominant flavors in both the wine and the food.

3. Three Ways to Pair

1. Complementary Pairings: Like with Like

One approach to wine and food pairing is to match similar flavors or characteristics. This method, often called "complementary pairing," can create a harmonious blend that enhances shared flavors.

Examples of complementary pairings include:

  • Buttery Chardonnay with creamy pasta dishes
  • Peppery Syrah with pepper-crusted steak
  • Citrusy Sauvignon Blanc with lemon-dressed salads
  • Earthy Pinot Noir with mushroom risotto

The idea is to find flavor bridges between the wine and the food. For instance, the buttery notes in a Chardonnay can complement the creamy texture of a rich pasta sauce, while the peppery characteristics of a Syrah can enhance the spiciness of a pepper-crusted steak.

2. Contrasting Pairings: Opposites Attract

While complementary pairings focus on similarities, contrasting pairings create balance through opposition. This method can lead to exciting flavor combinations that bring out the best in both the wine and the food.

Examples of contrasting pairings include:

  • Sweet Riesling with spicy Thai cuisine
  • Acidic Champagne with rich, creamy cheese
  • Tannic Cabernet Sauvignon with fatty steak
  • Off-dry Rosé with salty prosciutto

In these pairings, the wine's characteristics balance out certain aspects of the food. For instance, the sweetness in a Riesling can temper the heat of spicy dishes, while the high acidity in Champagne can cut through the richness of creamy cheeses.

3. Regional Pairings: What Grows Together, Goes Together

An age-old adage in wine and food pairing is "what grows together, goes together." This principle suggests that wines often pair well with the local cuisine of their region. After all, wine and food cultures have evolved together over centuries in many parts of the world.

Examples of regional pairings include:

  • Italian Chianti with tomato-based pasta dishes and wild boar
  • Spanish Albariño with seafood paella
  • French Burgundy with beef bourguignon
  • German Riesling or Austrian Gruner Veltliner with schnitzel

While this approach doesn't always guarantee a perfect match, it can be a helpful starting point when you're unsure about a pairing. And hey, it's what the locals are doing!

4. Classic Wine and Food Pairings

Some wine and food pairings have stood the test of time, becoming classic combinations that are widely recognized and enjoyed. Here are a few examples:

  • Champagne, Chablis, and Muscadet with Oysters: The crisp acidity and bubbles in these wines complement the briny flavors of fresh oysters.
  • Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, and Shiraz with Steak: The bold tannins in thee red wines stand up to the rich flavors of red meat and help cut through the fat.
  • Pinot Noir and Salmon: The light to medium body of Pinot Noir pairs well with the delicate flavors of salmon without overpowering the fish.
  • Sauvignon Blanc and Goat Cheese: The bright, herbaceous notes in Sauvignon Blanc complement the tangy flavors of goat cheese.
  • Port and Blue Cheese: The sweetness of Port balances the salty, pungent flavors of blue cheese.

Try these tried and true pairings for yourself and see if any lightbulbs go off!

5. Pairing Wine with Different Courses

When planning a multi-course meal, consider how your wine choices will progress throughout the evening. Here's a general guide for pairing wines with different courses:


  • Light, crisp whites (e.g., Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc)
  • Sparkling wines (e.g., Champagne, Prosecco)
  • Light-bodied reds (e.g., Beaujolais, light Pinot Noir)

These wines can whet the appetite without overwhelming the palate.

Main Course:

  • For fish or light meats: Medium-bodied whites (e.g., Chardonnay) or light reds (e.g., Pinot Noir, Nerello Mascalese, Cinsault)
  • For red meats: Full-bodied reds (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, Malbec)
  • For spicy dishes: Off-dry whites (e.g., Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Vouvray (Chenin Blanc))

Note: Match the intensity of the wine with the richness of the main dish.


  • Sweet wines (e.g., Sauternes, Ice Wine, Tokaj, Port, Madeira)

Remember the rule: the wine should be sweeter than the dessert.

Cheese Course:

  • Varied, depending on the cheese (e.g., Sauvignon Blanc with goat cheese, Port with blue cheese)

Cheese and wine pairing might be the most complicated! Consider both the texture and flavor of the cheese when choosing a wine.

6. Tips for Successful Pairing

While the principles we've discussed can guide your choices, successful wine and food pairing often comes down to personal preference and experimentation. Here are some additional tips to help you on your pairing journey:

  1. Consider the sauce: Often, it's the sauce or preparation method, rather than the main ingredient, that determines the best wine pairing. For example, chicken in a rich cream sauce might pair better with a full-bodied white wine, while chicken in a tomato-based sauce might work better with a medium-bodied red.
  2. Match the wine to the most prominent element: If your dish has a particularly strong flavor (like garlic, lemon, or herbs), consider pairing the wine with that dominant taste rather than the main protein.
  3. Balance flavors and textures: Aim for a balance between the food and wine. A rich, heavy dish often pairs well with a wine that can cut through that richness, like an acidic white or a tannic red.
  4. Consider the occasion: The setting and occasion can influence your pairing choices. A casual backyard barbecue might call for different wines than a formal dinner party.
  5. Don't be afraid to experiment: While guidelines are helpful, don't be afraid to try unconventional pairings. You might discover a combination that works perfectly for your palate.
  6. Seek balance in weight: Try to match light-bodied wines with lighter foods and full-bodied wines with heartier dishes.
  7. Pay attention to acidity: Acidic wines can help cut through rich, fatty foods and refresh the palate. They also pair well with acidic foods.
  8. Consider sweetness levels: Sweet wines can balance spicy, salty, or bitter flavors in food.
  9. Think about tannins: Tannic red wines pair well with rich, fatty meats as the tannins help cleanse the palate.
  10. Remember temperature: Serve wines at their appropriate temperatures to fully appreciate their flavors and aromas.

7. Common Pairing Mistakes to Avoid

While there are no strict rules in wine pairing, there are some common pitfalls that can detract from your dining experience:

  1. Overwhelming delicate flavors: Pairing a bold, tannic red wine with delicate fish can overpower the dish's subtle flavors.
  2. Matching sweet wines with sweet desserts: If the dessert is sweeter than the wine, it can make the wine taste bitter or flat. Opt for a wine that's slightly sweeter than the dessert.
  3. Ignoring acidity: Failing to consider the acidity in both the food and wine can lead to imbalanced pairings.
  4. Focusing solely on the protein: Remember to consider sauces, cooking methods, and side dishes when choosing a wine.
  5. Sticking too rigidly to "rules": While guidelines can be helpful, being too strict about rules like "white wine with fish, red wine with meat" can cause you to miss out on interesting and enjoyable pairings.
  6. Overlooking sparkling wines: Many people reserve sparkling wines for celebrations, but they can be versatile pairing options for many dishes.
  7. Serving wine at the wrong temperature: Serving red wine too warm or white wine too cold can significantly impact its flavor and aroma.
  8. Pairing very tannic wines with bitter foods: This combination can enhance the bitterness, leading to an unpleasant taste experience.
  9. Neglecting to consider the preparation method: How a dish is cooked can greatly affect its flavor profile and, consequently, its ideal wine pairing.
  10. Forgetting about personal preferences: While guidelines are helpful, your personal taste should always be the final arbiter in choosing a wine pairing.

8. Conclusion

Wine and food pairing is an art that combines science, tradition, and personal preference. While the principles and guidelines we've discussed can serve as a helpful starting point, the most important factor is your own enjoyment. Don't be afraid to experiment with different combinations and trust your palate.

Remember, the goal of wine and food pairing is to enhance your overall dining experience. A successful pairing should make both the wine and the food taste better together than they would on their own. Whether you're planning a multi-course dinner party or simply enjoying a casual meal at home, considering your wine choices can elevate your culinary experience.

As you continue to explore the world of wine and food pairing, you'll develop a better understanding of your preferences and become more confident in your choices. Keep an open mind, be willing to try new things, and most importantly, have fun with the process. After all, the joy of discovery is part of what makes the world of wine so endlessly fascinating.

So, the next time you sit down for a meal, take a moment to consider your wine selection. Whether you opt for a classic pairing or an unconventional choice, you're embarking on a flavorful adventure that has delighted food and wine lovers for centuries. Cheers to your journey into the wonderful world of wine and food pairing!